According to SAMHSA, research shows a strong graded (i.e., dose-response) relationship between ACEs and a variety of substance use-related behaviors, including:
- Early initiation of alcohol use (Dube et al, 2006)
- Problem drinking behavior into adulthood (Dube et al, 2002)
- Prescription drug use (Anda et al, 2008)
- Lifetime illicit drug use, ever having a drug problem, and self-reported addiction (Dube et al, 2003)
Link to Dr. Nadine Burke Harris' TED talk.